24 different types of metals and their properties
The development of human civilization and the progress of society are closely related to metal materials. The Bronze Age and Iron Age, which followed the Stone Age, were marked by the application of metal materials. In modern times, various kinds of metal materials have become an important material basis for the development of human society.
There are many different types of metals, each with their own unique properties. Some metals are harder than others, some are more durable, and others are better at conducting electricity. In this blog post, we will discuss the various properties of different types of metal and how they can be used in different applications. We will also talk about the most common alloys and what makes them so special. So if you’re curious to learn more about metal, read on!
What is Metal?
Metal is a kind of special luster, malleable and opaque crystalline substance. Its characteristics are high strength, excellent electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and ductility, casting, pressure processing, welding and other processes can be made into various shapes of profilesi or parts, as well as a variety of structural parts.
Metal is an element that is found in the periodic table. It is characterized by its shiny appearance, high melting point, and conductivity. There are over 100 different elements in the periodic table, but only a handful of them are considered to be metal.
The type of Metal
There are many different types of metal, each with their own unique set of properties. Metal materials are usually divided into ferrous metals, non-ferrous metals and special metal materials.
What is ferrous metal?
Ferrous metal is also known as iron and steel materials, including iron containing more than 90% of the industrial pure iron, carbon 2% ~ 4% cast iron, carbon containing less than 2% carbon steel, and a variety of uses of structural steel, stainless steel, heat resistant steel, high alloy stainless steel, precision alloy, etc.. Ferrous metals in a broad sense also include chromium, manganese and their alloys manufactured metals.
What is Non-ferrous metals?
Non-ferrous metals refer to all metals and their alloys except iron, chromium and manganese, which are usually divided into light metals, heavy metals, precious metals, semi-metals, rare metals and rare earth metals. The strength and hardness of non-ferrous alloys are generally higher than that of pure metals, and the resistance is large and the resistance temperature coefficient is small.
The following are the most common types of metals:
- Steel（Carbon steel）
- Tool Steel
- Mild Steel
- High Carbon Steel
- Alloy steel
- Stainless steel
- Wrought iron
- Cast Iron
The Characteristics of different types of metal materials
Aluminum is a soft, lightweight metal with excellent conductivity. It is often used in electrical applications because of these properties. Aluminum is also corrosion-resistant and has a high strength-to-weight ratio, making it ideal for use in aircraft and automobiles.
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon, and it is one of the most widely used metals in the world. Steel is strong and durable, and it can be easily recycled.
Steel also known as carbon steels, carbon steel not only has good plasticity, and steel products have high strength, good toughness, high temperature resistance, corrosion resistance, easy processing, impact resistance, easy to refine and other excellent physical and chemical application performance, so it is widely used.
Tool steel is a type of steel that is designed for use in tools and machinery. It is often used in cutting and drilling applications because of its high hardness and wear resistance. It is welcomed by many tool manufacturers because of its affordable price and balanced performance.
Tool steel can still maintain high hardness and good red hardness at high temperature, and has high wear resistance and appropriate toughness. It is used to manufacture cutting tools, measuring tools, die and wear – resistant tools.
High Carbon Steel
High carbon steel contains between 0.60% and 0.95% of carbon, and the rest is iron. It is also called hard steel because of its high hardness. High carbon steel is used to make cutting tools, measuring tools and dies. It can also be used as a wear-resistant material.
Alloy steel is a type of steel that contains one or more alloying elements (elements that are not pure metals). These elements are added to the steel to improve its properties, such as strength, hardness, resistance to wear and corrosion.
Stainless steel is based on the basic carbon steel to add chromium elements to make it corrosion resistant, so that the tool finish is greatly improved, if properly maintained, it is difficult to rust.
Stainless steel is a type of steel that contains at least 12% chromium. This makes it resistant to rust and corrosion. It is also very strong and durable. Stainless steel is often used in kitchenware, medical devices, architecture and chemical processing equipment.
Iron is a metal with excellent ductility, hardness and strength. It is also very cheap and abundant in nature. Iron is often used in the construction of buildings, bridges, railways and automobiles.
Iron is a flexible and ductile silver metal, used in the production of motor and motor core, iron and its compounds are also used in the manufacture of magnets, drugs, ink, pigments, abrasives, etc., is one of the industry said “black metals”.
Wrought iron is a type of iron that contains less than 0.25% carbon. It is very strong and tough, and it can be easily welded, forged and cast. Wrought iron is often used in the construction of buildings, bridges and fences.
Cast iron is a type of iron that contains a high amount of carbon (usually more than two percent). It is made by melting pig iron (an impure form of iron that contains high levels of carbon) and adding alloys to it. This makes it harder and stronger than pure iron. However, it is also more brittle and difficult to work with. Cast iron is often used in the construction of buildings, bridges and railway tracks.
Pig iron is a type of impure iron that contains high levels of carbon. It is made by melting iron ore in a blast furnace. Pig iron is used as a raw material for the production of cast iron and steel. Pig iron is hard, wear-resistant, good casting property, but the pig iron is brittle and cannot be forged.
Copper is a soft, malleable and ductile metal with a pinkish color. It is a good conductor of heat and electricity. Copper is often used in electrical wiring and plumbing because of these properties.
Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc. It has a mix of the characteristics of both metals. Brass is strong, durable and has a low friction coefficient. It is also malleable so it can be easily worked with. It has a beautiful golden color that never goes out of style.
Bronze is an alloy of copper and tin. Bronze is harder than pure copper and has a lower melting point. Bronze is often used to make coins, statues and bearings because of these properties. bronze can also be used for other purposes such as in the construction of buildings and bridges, or in electrical wiring and plumbing.
Cobalt is a hard, silver-white metal. It is often used in alloys because it increases the strength and hardness of the metal. Cobalt is also used in making magnets and in electroplating.
Cobalt is a shiny steel-gray metal, relatively hard and brittle, similar to iron and nickel in hardness, tensile strength, mechanical properties, thermodynamic properties, and electrochemical behavior. The magnetism disappears when heated to 1150℃.
Magnesium metal is a silver-white metal with a density of 1.74 g/cm³. It is hard，slightly malleable，light and strong metal. It is used in alloys because it makes the metal lighter and stronger.
Magnesium is an important material in aviation industry. It is used to manufacture aircraft fuselage and engine parts.
Titanium is a strong, lightweight metal with a silvery-white color. It is corrosion resistant and has a high melting point. The main characteristics of titanium are low density, high mechanical strength and easy processing. Titanium is often used in aircraft and spacecraft because of these properties. Titanium has metallic luster and is malleable.
Nickel is a silvery-white, lustrous metal with a slight golden tinge. Nickel belongs to the transition metals and is hard and ductile.
Nickel is an important material in industry and daily life. It has good corrosion resistance, heat resistance, and low thermal expansion. Nickel is widely used in many fields, such as electronics, batteries, alloys, catalysts, and so on.
Platinum is a transition metal, high density, malleable, silver-white color, metallic luster, hardness 4-4.5, the relative density of 21.45. The melting point is 1773℃. Rich ductility, can be drawn into very thin platinum wire, rolled into extremely thin platinum foil.
Lead is a heavy metal with a bluish-white color. It is soft, malleable and has a low melting point. Lead is often used in the construction of buildings and bridges because of these properties. lead can also be used for other purposes such as electrical wiring and plumbing.
Chromium is a lustrous, brittle, hard metal. It has a silvery-white color with a bluish tinge. Chromium is often used in alloys because it increases the strength and hardness of the metal.
Chromium is widely used in many fields, such as metallurgy, chemical industry, refractory materials, electronics, pigments and dyes, food processing, and so on.
Gold is a precious metal that has been used for centuries to make jewelry, coins and other objects. It is rare, soft, malleable and does not corrode in the air. Gold is a good conductor of electricity and heat. Gold is solid at room temperature, dense, soft, bright, corrosion resistant, and the most malleable metal.
Silver is a precious metal that is similar to gold in many ways. It is rare, soft, malleable and does not corrode in the air. Silver is a good conductor of electricity and heat. However, it is not as good a conductor as gold.
Properties of metallic materials
The properties of metal materials determine the scope of application and the rationality of application. The properties of metal materials are mainly divided into four aspects, namely: mechanical properties, chemical properties, physical properties, technological properties.
- Mechanical properties
The mechanical properties of metal materials are the basic and main properties for judging whether a material can be used or not. The most important mechanical properties are: yield strength, tensile strength, hardness, impact toughness, plasticity, etc.
- Chemical Properties
The chemical property is an important indicator to judge the adaptability of the material to the environment. The main indicators are: corrosion resistance, heat resistance, oxidation resistance, wear resistance and radiation resistance.
- Physical Properties
The physical properties of metal materials mainly include density, thermal conductivity, specific heat capacity, coefficient of linear expansion and electrical conductivity.
- Technological Properties
The technological properties of metal materials are the indicators to judge whether a material can be processed or not, and they are also an important basis for judging the type of processing technology. The main indicators are: machinability, weldability, cold workability and hot workability.
Hardness represents the ability of a material to resist hard objects being pressed into its surface. It is one of the important performance indexes of metal materials. Generally, the higher the hardness, the better the wear resistance. The commonly used hardness indexes are Brinell hardness, Rockwell hardness and Vickers hardness.
① Brinell hardness (HB) : Brinell hardness is a type of hardness measurement for metallic materials. The Brinell hardness test uses a hard, spherical indenter to compress the surface of the metal sample under a specific load. The resulting permanent indentation is then measured and converted into a Brinell hardness number.
It is suitable for measuring the hardness of large, brittle and cast iron. The indentation diameter is generally D=12.70mm (0.500in).
② Rockwell hardness (HRC) : The Rockwell hardness test uses a hard, spherical indenter to compress the surface of the metal sample under a specific load. The resulting permanent indentation is then measured and converted into a Rockwell hardness number.
It is suitable for measuring the hardness of small, hard and difficult-to-machine materials. There are three types: A type (60kgf), B type (100kgf) and C type (150kgf).
- Yield strength
Yield strength is the stress that causes a material to deform permanently. It is also called yield point or yield strength. The value of yield strength indicates the ability of a material to resist deformation under external forces, which is an important mechanical property of materials.
- Tensile strength
Tensile strength is the maximum stress that a material can withstand before breaking. It is also called tensile strength or ultimate tensile strength. The value of tensile strength indicates the ability of a material to resist deformation under external forces. It is an important mechanical property of materials.
Elongation is the increase in length of a material under tension. It is also called strain or elongation at break. The value of elongation indicates the ability of a material to resist deformation under external forces. It is an important mechanical property of materials.
Q: What are the common aluminum?
A: The common aluminum alloys are 1050, 1100, 1145, 1235, 1350, and so on.
Q: What is the difference between brass and bronze?
A: Brass is an alloy of copper and zinc, while bronze is an alloy of copper and tin. Both brass and bronze are strong and durable. However, brass is more resistant to corrosion than bronze.
Q: What is the difference Stainless steel and Aluminum?
A: Stainless steel is an alloy of iron, chromium and carbon, while aluminum is a metal. Stainless steel is more resistant to corrosion than aluminum. Aluminum is lighter than stainless steel.
Q: Which metals are available for CNC machining？
A: The metals that are available for CNC machining are aluminum, brass, bronze, stainless steel, and so on.
Q: What is the difference between ferrous and non-ferrous metals?
A: Ferrous metals contain iron, while non-ferrous metals do not. Ferrous metals are magnetic, while non-ferrous metals are not.Ferrous metals are more corrosion resistant than non-ferrous metals.
Gavin Leo is a technical writer at Aria with 8 years of experience in Engineering, He proficient in machining characteristics and surface finish process of various materials. and participated in the development of more than 100complex injection molding and CNC machining projects. He is passionate about sharing his knowledge and experience.